Milk of magnesia

Milk of magnesia
Milk of magnesia is usually an 8.7% w/v aqueous suspension of magnesium hydroxide.
(a) What are the chemical formulation and the molecular weight of magnesium hydroxide?
(b) What’s the focus of magnesium hydroxide in gram per litre?
(c) What number of moles of such magnesium salts are current in a 100-ml suspension?

Alkaline Earth Metals 65
3.7 Case research
3.7.1 Magnesium hydroxide suspension
Magnesium hydroxide combination is an aqueous oral suspension containing hydrated magnesium oxide. It’s
indicated to be used in constipation in adults and kids. Typical evaluation strategies used for high quality functions
are primarily based on titration reactions. A sure quantity of the suspension containing hydrated magnesium oxide
[Mg(OH)2] is usually reacted with a recognized quantity of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The surplus acid is then titrated
with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and methyl orange as an indicator [12].
(a) Analysis the kind of titration described. Describe the chemical construction and mode of motion of the
(b) Formulate the related chemical equations.
(c) For the evaluation, 10 g of the suspension was reacted with 50 ml of 0.5 M H2SO4. The surplus H2SO4 was
titrated with 1 M NaOH utilizing methyl orange as indicator. For every titration, the next quantity of
NaOH has been used:
11.0 ml 11.2 ml 10.9 ml
Calculate the quantity of Mg(OH)2 current in your pattern. Categorical your reply in grams and moles.
3.7.2 Calcium carbonate tablets
Your pharmaceutical evaluation firm has been contacted by an vital consumer and requested to analyse a
batch of injections containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The outline of your temporary states that you’re
speculated to analyse the lively pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in these tablets following normal high quality
assurance tips.
Typical evaluation strategies used for high quality functions are primarily based on titration reactions. A specific amount of
the pill powder is dissolved in water and hydrochloride acid (HCl). A recognized quantity of disodium edetate
is added. After adjustment of the pH, the surplus disodium edetate is titrated with zinc chloride (ZnCl) utilizing
morbant black II answer as indicator [12].
(a) Analysis the kind of titration described. Describe the chemical construction and mode of motion of the
indicator. Chances are you’ll wish to familiarise your self with chelation (see Part 11.2).
(b) Formulate the related chemical equations.
(c) The package deal states that every pill accommodates 1.5 g of CaCO3. For the experiment, 20 tablets are weighed
(whole weight 42.6 g) and powdered. An quantity of powder containing 50 mg of Ca2+ is dissolved in
water and HCl and reacted with 50 ml of 0.05 M disodium edetate. After adjusting the pH to 10.9, the
extra disodium edetate is titrated with 0.05 M ZnCl2 answer. For every titration, the next quantity
of ZnCl2 has been used:
25.0 ml 24.8 ml 25.3 ml
Calculate the quantity of CaCO3 current in your pattern. Categorical your reply in grams and moles.
(d) Critically focus on your lead to context with the said worth for the API.
(e) Analysis the sometimes accepted error margins.
66 Necessities of Inorganic Chemistry
1. J. D. Lee, Concise inorganic chemistry, fifth ed., Chapman & Corridor, London, 1996.
2. B. P. Barna, D. A. Culver, B. Yen-Lieberman, R. A. Dweik, M. J. Thomassen, Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 2003, 10,
3. G. J. Tortora, B. Derrickson, Rules of anatomy and physiology, twelfth ed., worldwide pupil/Gerard J. Tortora,
Bryan Derrickson. ed., Wiley [Chichester: John Wiley, distributor], Hoboken, N.J., 2009.
4. G. A. McKay, M. R. Walters, J. L. Reid, Lecture notes. Medical pharmacology and therapeutics, eighth ed.,
Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, 2010.
5. British nationwide formulary, British Medical Affiliation and Pharmaceutical Society of Nice Britain, London.
6. E. R. Tiekink, M. Gielen, Metallotherapeutic medicine and metal-based diagnostic brokers: using metals in drugs,
Wiley, Chichester, 2005.
7. S. B. Eaton, D. A. Nelson, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 1991, 54, S281–S287.
8. M. J. Bargerlux, R. P. Heaney, J. Nutr. 1994, 124, S1406–S1411.
9. B. R. Martin, C. M. Weaver, R. P. Heaney, P. T. Packard, D. L. Smith, J. Agric. Meals Chem. 2002, 50, 3874–3876.
10. D. A. Straub, Nutr. Clin. Pract. 2007, 22, 286–296.
11. (a) M. A. Oconnell, J. S. Lindberg, T. P. Peller, H. M. Cushner, J. B. Copley, Clin. Pharm. 1989, 8, 425–427; (b) W.
F. Caspary, Eur. J. Gastroen. Hepat. 1996, 8, 545–547.
12. British pharmacopoeia, Revealed for the Common Medical Council by Constable & Co, London.
Additional Studying
1. E. Alessio, Bioinorganic medicinal chemistry, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2011.
2. W. Kaim, B. Schwederski, Bioinorganic chemistry: inorganic parts within the chemistry of life: an introduction and
information, Wiley, Chichester, 1994.
3. H.-B. Kraatz, N. Metzler-Nolte, Ideas and fashions in bioinorganic chemistry, Wiley-VCH [Chichester: John
Wiley, distributor], Weinheim, 2006.
4. R. M. Roat-Malone, Bioinorganic chemistry: a brief course, Wiley, Hoboken, N.J. [Great Britain], 2002.
The Boron Group – Group 13
Group 13 (thirteenth vertical column of the periodic desk) is known as the boron group and it consists of boron (B),
aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In) and thallium (Tl) (Determine 4.1).
All parts inside group 13 present all kinds of properties. It is very important notice that boron is a steelloid (semi-metal) whereas aluminium is a steel however exhibits many chemical similarities to boron. Aluminium,
gallium, indium and thallium are thought-about to be metals of the ‘poor metals’ group.
Metalloids are parts that show some properties attribute for metals and a few attribute
for nonmetals.
On this chapter, the final chemistry of group 13 parts is mentioned in addition to some scientific functions
for boron and aluminium. Additional scientific functions for boron in addition to functions for thallium will be
discovered within the chapter on radiochemistry (Chapter 10).
4.1 Common chemistry of group 13 parts
Group 13 parts are characterised by having three electrons of their valence shell. Subsequently, all parts
kind the steady cation M3+. Most parts (aside from B) kind moreover the singly positively
charged ion M+, which is certainly the extra steady oxidation state for Tl.
Boron and aluminium happen solely with oxidation quantity +3 of their compounds, and with just a few exceptions
their compounds are finest described as ionic. The digital configuration exhibits three electrons outdoors a noble
gasoline configuration, two in an s shell and one in a p shell. The outermost p electron is simple to take away as it’s
furthest from the nucleus and effectively shielded from the efficient nuclear cost. The subsequent two s electrons are additionally
comparatively simple to take away. Elimination of any additional electrons disturbs a crammed quantum shell and is due to this fact
tough. That is mirrored within the ionisation energies (Desk 4.1).
The primary sources of B are the 2 minerals borax (Na2[B4O5(OH)4]⋅8H2O) and kernite (Na2[B4O5(OH)4]),
that are typically used as parts in lots of detergents or cosmetics. Al happens extensively on earth, and it
Necessities of Inorganic Chemistry: For College students of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Medicinal Chemistry,
First Version. Katja A. Strohfeldt.
© 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Revealed 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Companion web site:
68 Necessities of Inorganic Chemistry
H He
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Ok Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Cs LaLu Ba Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Fr Ra AcLr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub
Determine 4.1 The periodic desk of parts, group 13 parts are highlighted
Desk 4.1 Ionisation power (kJ/mol) for
group 13 parts [1]
First Second Third
B 801 2427 3659
Al 577 1816 2744
Ga 579 1979 2962
In 558 1820 2704
Tl 589 1971 2877
Supply: Reproduced with permission from [1]. Copyright ©
1996, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
is probably the most ample steel and the third most ample factor within the earth’s crust. Aluminosilicates, such
as clays, micas, feldspar, along with bauxite, are the principle sources of Al. Ga, In and Tl happen in traces as
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