Side effects

Negative effects
A number of massive long-term research have proven {that a} day by day consumption of 1000–2500 mg of calcium salts is secure.
Negative effects have been noticed solely at comparatively excessive doses, being manifested in GI disturbances comparable to
constipation and bloating and, in excessive circumstances, arrhythmia [11]. The GI system usually adjusts after some time,
and issues ought to resolve themselves. Calcium salts are typically higher absorbed in an acid setting,
so sufferers with a low manufacturing of abdomen acid or aged sufferers who’re on excessive doses of antiulcer
treatment may expertise issues with absorption. It’s then beneficial to eat the calcium
complement with a meal [5].
However, it is very important word that calcium ions can intervene with the absorption of some medication, such
as antibiotics. For instance, tetracycline and quinolone antibiotics can chelate Ca2+ ions and kind complexes
which can’t be absorbed anymore. Due to this fact, calcium dietary supplements and antibiotics shouldn’t be taken
collectively. Sufferers are usually suggested to take antibiotics 1 h earlier than or 2 h after meals [5].
3.5 Barium: rat poison or radio-contrast agent?
The ingredient barium (Ba) has the atomic quantity 56 and is classed as a heavy steel. Barium steel is very
reactive and due to this fact no elemental barium exists in nature. Pure sources of barium are the water-insoluble
minerals barite (barium sulfate) and whiterite (barium carbonate). With the intention to get hold of pure barium compounds,
the mineral barite is reacted with carbon, and barium sulfide is shaped. Barium sulfide is, in distinction to
barium sulfate, water soluble. Subsequently, the pure barium sulfide is handled with sulfuric acid and pure
barium sulfate may be obtained.
BaSO4 + 4C → BaS + 4CO
BaS + H2SO4 → BaSO4 + H2S
Barium salts may be extremely poisonous even at low concentrations. Barium carbonate is very poisonous and may
be used as rat poison because it readily dissolves within the abdomen acid. Barium sulfate is the least poisonous barium
compound primarily due to its insolubility. Barium sulfate is utilized in quite a lot of functions starting from
white paint to X-ray distinction agent.
62 Necessities of Inorganic Chemistry
Determine 3.14 Chemical construction of barium sulfate
The scientific use of barium sulfate suspension is well-known below the time period barium meal. Sufferers are given
a suspension of barium sulfate to swallow. Utilizing X-ray imaging, the entire oesophagus, the abdomen and the
intestines may be visualised. Barium sulfate traces the tissue while travelling by way of the digestive tract. The
heavy barium ions take in X-rays readily and due to this fact these buildings turn out to be seen in an X-ray screening.
Barium sulfate is a well-used and tolerated oral radio-contrast agent. Additionally it is used as radio-contrast agent in
enemas (Determine 3.14) [3, 4].
Alkaline Earth Metals 63
3.6 Workouts
3.6.1 Calcium supplementation
Calcium supplementation is beneficial as a dietary complement particularly for menopausal, pregnant or nursing ladies. There are a number of calcium salts available on the market that can be utilized for oral
administration. For the examples given under, decide the chemical formulation, the molecular weight
and the Ca2+ content material (expressed in gram/gram (g/g) and proportion weight/weight (%w/w)).
(a) Calcium carbonate
(b) Calcium lactate
(c) Calcium chloride
(d) Calcium citrate
(e) Calcium gluconate
3.6.2 Full the redox equation (together with the half-equations) and point out the usual discount
potential assuming that each response companions are current in the identical focus.
(a) Mg+Cl2 → ??
(b) Ba+Br2 → ??
3.6.3 Full the next redox equation (together with the half-equations).
Mg + Cl2 →??
Point out the usual discount potential assuming a focus of [Mg2+]=0.7 mol/l and
[Cl−]=0.8 mol/l.Chemical construction of boric acid
comparable to in detergents, cosmetics, antifungal mixtures in addition to elements in fibreglass and others. The
toxicity of borates in mammals is comparatively low, however it reveals a considerably greater danger to arthropods and
can be utilized as an insecticide.
Boron-based compounds are utilized in a variety of scientific functions together with their use as antifungal and antimicrobial agent, as proteasome inhibitors and as a noninvasive remedy choice for malignant
tumours. The latter utility will probably be mentioned within the chapter on radiopharmaceuticals (Chapter 10).
4.2.2 Pharmaceutical functions of boric acid
Boric acid is a long-standing conventional treatment with primarily antifungal and antimicrobial results. For medicinal makes use of, it has turn out to be generally known as sal sedativum, which was found by Homberg, the Dutch pure
thinker, in 1702 [3]. Diluted options had been and typically nonetheless are used as antiseptics for the remedy
of athletes’ foot and bacterial thrush, and in a lot diluted options as eyewash (Determine 4.3) [4].
Boric acid may be ready by reacting borax with a mineral acid:
Na2B4O7 ⋅ 10H2O + 2HCl → 4B(OH)3[or H3BO3] + 2NaCl + 5H2O
Generally, there are a lot of different well being claims across the scientific use of boric acid and boron-containing
compounds, however lots of these don’t have any supporting scientific proof. Bortezomib
Bortezomib belong to the category of medication known as proteasome inhibitors and is licensed in the USA and
the UK for the remedy of a number of myeloma. The drug has been licensed for sufferers in whom
the myeloma has progressed regardless of prior remedy or the place a bone marrow transplant isn’t doable or was
not profitable. It’s marketed below the identify Velcade® or Cytomib®. Velcade is run through injection
and is bought as powder for reconstitution (Determine 4.4) [5].
Bortezomib was the primary drug accredited within the new drug class of proteasome inhibitors and boron appears to
be its lively ingredient. For the mode of motion, it’s believed that the boron atom binds with excessive affinity and
specificity to the catalytic website of 26S proteasome and inhibits its motion. Remedy with Bortezomib can lead
to quite a lot of antagonistic reactions, together with peripheral neuropathy, myelosuppression, renal impairment and
gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances along with adjustments in style. However, the unwanted side effects are in most
circumstances much less extreme than with different remedy choices comparable to bone marrow transplantation [5].

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